Author Archives: Maisem

Cover Letter

Cover Letter

Cover Letter

I was very pleased that I could choose the topics I wanted to write about in English Composition 102. I learned a lot of information from researching the topics I chose, because I was genuinely interested in learning more about them.

The “birth of cool” assignment was very interesting to me. I am very fascinated about South Korea and this assignment gave me an opportunity to learn more about it. My topic was about boy bands. I could have written about boy bands in America, but I chose to write about South Korean boy bands in particular because I listen to a lot of Korean music and most of the songs are by boy and girl bands. I did not want to be someone who liked something without really understanding what it was. I did not want to be ignorant. I used this assignment to increase my knowledge of South Korea as well as help others learn more about a topic that is not widely known. Learning about how Korean pop music groups formed made me appreciate Korean pop music even more. I was surrounded by a lot of information and struggled to articulate it all correctly. There were many different aspects about Korean boy bands that I wanted to describe and I sometimes went off on a tangent. When I revised my essay I tried to think of myself as someone who had no knowledge of South Korea or boy bands. This helped me write my essay because my first draft sometimes made the assumption that the reader knew about the topic. Writing about a topic while keeping the reader in mind helped me develop a better essay.

The profile assignment was my favorite assignment this semester. I wrote about the private tutoring institutions in South Korea. I interviewed my South Korean pen pal for this assignment and I think it made us become closer as friends. I wanted to profile my pen pal because she would often write to me about studying for exams and being overwhelmed. I had a general knowledge of South Korea at the time and knew that education was important and studying was a priority. Being able to research the topic more thoroughly and getting a person’s point of view was enriching and helped me gain a better understanding about the topic. I wanted to write about South Korean education because I felt that I needed to share the knowledge with other people. I wanted others to become more aware of South Korean students and the pressures they endure in order to excel. I believe the worst type of pain would be mental stresses because it can break you down from the inside and your emotions become erratic. I felt empathy towards South Korean students and I wanted others to understand as well. My first step in writing about the topic was to find the source of the obsession of education and then work my way to the present. While researching about the topic I had many “Ah ha!” moments because everything became crystal clear once I knew the history of South Korean education.

The book review on Blindness was very new to me. I never wrote a review before and learning about the different components helped me become a better writer. I enjoyed reading the novel even though I would have liked it to be more inspiring. While writing the review I tried to summarize the parts of the book that were the most important and tried to convey the importance of the themes of the book. I did not want my personal feelings about the book to get in the way of the review. It was an excellent novel and I wanted to recommend it to others. The book’s message is really powerful although some people may miss the point. I tried to explain to the future readers that they would appreciate the book as long as they kept an open mind. Many people might want to find an answer to every problem, but sometimes there is no answer.

English Composition 102 helped me find my own style of writing. I also learned to better incorporate quotes and information from sources in my essay. I would often insert a quote into a paragraph and it would minimize the effectiveness of the information. Putting the information into my own words was a better technique and increased the overall quality of my essays.

The “birth of cool” assignment, the profile, and the book review were enjoyable projects to complete. I learned many new skills this semester and I will continue to improve my writing by practicing and utilizing what I have learned.


Blindness Review

A3 Blindness Review


By Jose Saramago

Reviewed by Maisem Jaloudi

Blindness strikes a man while he is at a cross light. Suddenly he can no longer see. A white blindness saturates his sight. There is no explanation for his blindness. His eyesight was perfectly fine moments before while he was waiting for the light to turn green. What has happened to his sight?

A thief takes advantage of the suddenly-turned-blind man. After escorting the blind man home, the thief steals his car. It isn’t long before the thief goes blind. Is this blindness contagious?

The blind man goes to an ophthalmologist’s office to get his eyes checked out. The doctor doesn’t find anything wrong with the man’s eyes. Is he really blind?

A girl with dark glasses, a young boy with a squint and an old man with cataracts were also at the ophthalmologist’s office the same day the blind man received his check up. Did he infect the other patients?

They go blind soon after.

In an effort to thwart the blindness epidemic, the Ministry of Health contains infected individuals in an asylum. People that were in contact with the individuals that turned blind were also brought to the asylum. The number of people in the asylum rapidly increases over time. Soon there are not enough beds for everyone to sleep on.

The ophthalmologist also goes blind. He is sent to the asylum after contacting the Ministry about the patient who suddenly went blind. His wife goes with him after claiming that she is blind as well. However, the doctor’s wife did not go blind.

Soldiers guard the doors to the asylum. They provide food for the blind and make sure the blind do not escape. They live in constant fear of contracting the white blindness.

Problems occur within the asylum. There is not enough food for the blind prisoners. The blind fight among themselves. Where is the justice?

The doctor’s wife plays an important role in the asylum. As chaos starts to take over within the asylum, the doctor’s wife helps her group as best as she can with her precious sight.

In Jose Saramago’s symbolic novel Blindness, an uncommon discrimination is described that closely resembles the discrimination of the real world. The suffering the blind go through in the asylum mirrors the suffering experienced by people today. Discrimination occurs in many different forms in today’s society and Saramago’s white blindness story eloquently sheds light on how oppressive and harsh people can be to one another.

More blind people are brought to the asylum. An unforgivable group of thugs start to stir things up in the asylum. They take control of the food supply because they have a gun. The thugs demand valuables in exchange for food at first and then demand women. The thugs rape the women brought to them. This chapter in Blindness might be hard to read for some people because it is completely raw and inhuman:

“She raised the suddenly dislocated body, the legs covered in blood, her abdomen bruised, her poor breasts uncovered, brutally scarred, teeth marks on her shoulder where she has been bitten.”

The story becomes more chaotic when the asylum gets burned down and the blind escape into the world of the seeing. Any form of organization that was once established in the asylum is broken. The doctor’s wife witnesses the state the city has gotten itself into. Everyone has turned blind. The people struggle to survive by trying to find food and shelter. The blind raid houses and shops in search of anything edible.

The doctor’s wife experiences the horrors in full detail. She often wishes she could be blind so she didn’t have to see how the blind struggle to live.

Throughout the novel, questions arise in the reader’s head. What is this blindness? Why are the blind treated this way? Saramago does not explain why or how the white blindness occurred. Many readers may want to know the cause of the white blindness and may become disappointed when the last page is turned. The white blindness is not explained because it would avert the main reason of the novel, to not simply look but to truly observe the world: “We are blind, Blind but seeing, Blind people who can see, but do not see.”

In the novel that evokes many questions, Blindness will not disappoint readers interested in opening their minds to the harsh reality of the world.

South Korean Education: Hagwon 학원



A2 Hagwons REVISED

Maisem Jaloudi

Professor Frost

English Composition 102

11 April 2013

South Korean Education: Hagwon학원

Hyejoo Choi (최혜주), 22, has been diligently studying for the government national exam that will be held this June in South Korea. “I long to work for the interest of the public,” expressed Choi. “The national exam I am preparing for determines which people are fit for working in the government, such as government branches, provincial offices, city hall, etc.” Choi took a semester off from university in order to focus all of her attention on passing the national exam. Studying for the national exam this year brought back memories of Choi’s high school days. “I spent most of high school preparing for the college entrance exam,” explained Choi, “I did not want to have any regrets, so I studied whenever I could.”

Choi’s dedication to her studies is not an uncommon story in the least. Many South Korean high school students study for long hours to prepare for the CSAT or College Scholastic Ability Test taken in the last year of high school (Lee). Most of the preparation for the test is supplemented by private education institutions known as hagwons. These tutorial schools offer academic programs during the school year as well as during the summer (Yi). Also known as “shadow education”, hagwons are considered cram schools that are held after regular classes for students wanting a leg up in their skills (Ripley and Kim).  According to the Minister of Education, in 2010 “nearly 75%” of the Korean student population supplemented their education by attending hagwons (Lee).

Choi was enrolled in a hagwon during high school. “I remember that I always wanted to go home,” said Choi, “but we would have to stay until around 11 PM.” In an effort to stop students like Choi from studying for such long hours, a 10 PM curfew at hagwons has been implemented by authorities in South Korea (Ripley and Kim). “There was a time when my teacher would not let us go home until we passed the quiz she gave us with no mistakes,” recalled Choi. “My friend and I had to take the quiz over and over again. We were not doing very well that day, and we just wanted to go home, but we were not allowed to.”

As exhausting as it may be, parents are urging their children into attending these hagwons. Parents want their children to get into a good school and are willing to pay for hagwons, “an average cost of nearly $2,600 per student for the year” (Ripley and Kim). Choi explained that it was her parents that pushed her to study in hagwons, so that she could have a better future. “I can understand my parents,” Choi said. “They wanted me to get into a good college so I could have a successful future, but it was really hard. I could not wake up from the nightmare because it was real.” Many Korean parents are “aware of the role the academic credentials play in their children’s future opportunities and make sacrifices to provide their children with shadow education” (Byun, Schofer, and Kim). The drive behind this obsession with private education is the desire for parents to get their children into prestigious colleges in Korea. The top colleges in South Korea are Seoul National University, Korea University and Yonsei University (Card). Being a student in one of the top universities reaps rewards for the future ahead. The most prestigious schools in South Korea equip students with valuable academic knowledge as well as a “strong alumni network” that gives some students a leg up when they try to find jobs after graduation (Card).

“I was living in a nightmare,” conveyed Choi. “I do not think anyone wants to admit the truth, but it was really tough. After I finished taking the college entrance exam I became overwhelmed with sadness. I could not believe that I wasted my high school experience for one exam. All that mattered was getting into a good university at the time, but when I look back on it, I wish I had a better high school experience. I cannot go back, but it would have been nice to have some good high school memories.”

Choi explained that the obsession with education did not occur over night. She briefly retold the history of the era that changed Korean thinking. “The last dynasty in Korea, called Joseon, lasted for about 500 years from the 14th century to 1910,” Choi described. “In that era, Confucianism started to heavily affect the whole nation. Confucianism dominated our ancestors’ ways of thinking and behavior.”

The Joseon Dynasty and Confucianism shed light on the rise of education obsession prominent in South Korea today. A widely influential Chinese social philosopher, Confucius (孔夫子), also known as Master Kong, spread his ideals throughout East Asia (Confucius). In the Analects (a collection of Confucius’s ideas and sayings) the first line is related to education: “Isn’t it a pleasure to study and practice what you have learned (學而時習之、不亦說乎)?” (Confucius). The ideals of Confucianism heavily shape the values of South Koreans. Confucius stressed the importance of “education and diligence” which consequently became a part of the values of South Koreans today (Kim and Park 44).

The Joseon Dynasty was based on Neo-Confucianism, which was a more rational and secular form of Confucianism. The values held during this era were morality, practical ethics, and righteousness. Private academies and educational institutions developed during this time. The Korean alphabet Hangul was also developed. The social hierarchy that existed during the Joseon Dynasty was different than other dynasties. The top consisted of the king and royal families, followed by the civil military officials called yangban. After the yangban were the middle class who were often scribes and medical officers, followed by the commoners or peasants. The lowest class consisted of tenant farmers, slaves, entertainers, craftsman, laborers and criminals (History of Korea).

Yangban were “landed or un-landed aristocracy” that were second to the king (Yangban). This tier in the social hierarchy was unlike the rest because one could obtain their position as a yangban.

Choi continued to explain, “Based on Confucianism, the country tried to select those who were fully aware of Confucian knowledge by testing them. The exam was called gwageo, and it was considered the only way to change one’s class or status in an aristocratic society.”

The national civil service exam or gwageo tested one’s knowledge of Confucian classics and history. Once it was passed, one could become a yangban and join the aristocrats (Yangban). These scholarly officials proved that one could become successful if one studied.

“Before this dynasty, it had always been aristocrats or royal families who led wealthy and successful lives, Choi concluded. “During the Joseon Dynasty, people had to become accustomed to working for most of the day and studying for the rest of it, dreaming to ascend to power and a better life. Obviously, those ideals still influence us today.”

Excelling academically is rooted in the Confucian teachings that South Korean values developed from. Although it is admirable to work hard to reach a goal, Koreans are taking education to extremes. A Korean high school student’s daily schedule consists of “self-study sessions at school, cram school classes and more self-studying hours late into the night at private cubicles, all on top of their regular class hours” (Lee). “I remember getting around 2 to 4 hours of sleep each day if I was lucky,” recalled Choi. Students experience extreme pressures to excel and assume failure if they do not get the highest marks on exams. According to Ahn’s Presidential Advisory Council on Education, Science and Technology, “more than 200 students committed suicide in 2009 and about 150 the following year” (Lee).

“Learning at a hagwon after school was not pleasant,” shared Choi. “I knew I was there for a reason, but there were days when I just wanted everything to stop. The worst situation I was in was when one of my teachers blacklisted me in the hagwon. There were teachers who used to hit misbehaving students on the hands, but she was not a hitter. I remember wishing that she was. I was in a situation where I really wanted to go home one day, so I cheated on one of the tests she gave out. She unfortunately caught me in the act. I know it is bad to cheat, but I was so exhausted that day and I really wanted to rest at home. I had no idea she would make the rest of my time studying at hagwons so hard for me. Teachers looked down at me and did not give me a chance to explain myself. Every answer I gave was wrong. I felt as if I was having a nightmare within another nightmare. I contemplated suicide a few times because I felt helpless. But my parents’ sacrifices kept creeping up in my mind and eventually I decided not to do anything too rash.”

Just like Choi, “more than 80% of high school students go on to higher education” in South Korea (Lee). The motivation to excel academically is rooted in the Confucian values. The habit of vigorously studying that South Korea students have acquired has in part been a result of the “long practice of equating social status with academic achievement” (Lee).

“I am currently studying for the national exam, but it is different now,” explained Choi. “I am studying because I want to be involved in the government. I was more or less forced to study during high school. My parents were the people that I did not want to let down. This time, the person that will be the most disappointed if I do not pass the national exam would be myself. It is different and I have changed for the better.”

Choi is gradually working towards her dream and trying to cut out her extreme study habits of the past. “You don’t have to worry,” Choi added, “I get around 6 hours of sleep now!”

Works Cited

Byun, Soo-yong, Evan Schofer, and Kyung-keun Kim. “Revisiting the Role of Cultural Capital in East Asian Educational Systems: The Case of South Korea.” Sociology of Education 85.3 (2012): 219-239. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

Card, James. “Life and Death Exams in South Korea.” Asia Times Online. N.p., 30 Nov. 2005. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

“Confucius.” Wikiquote. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

“History of Korea.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Nov. 2013. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

Kim, Andrew Eungi, and Gil-sung Park. “Nationalism, Confucianism, Work Ethic and Industrialization in South Korea.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 33.1 (2003): 37. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

Lee, Jiyeon. “South Korean Students’ ‘Year of Hell’ Culminates with Exams Day.” CNN. Cable News Network, 13 Nov. 2011. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

Ripley, Amanda, and Stephen Kim. “Teacher, Leave Those Kids Alone.” Time 178.22 (2011): 46-49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

“Yangban.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Mar. 2013. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

Yi, Daniel. “Using Summer to Spring Ahead for the Fall.” Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 17 July 2002. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.


A2 Bibliography REVISED


Bray, Mark. Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2009. Print.

The book focuses on the private tutoring systems in East Asian countries called hagwons or shadow education. It is important because it describes the intensity of the systems that are enforced. It will be helpful because it will supply a grounding point of the educational system in South Korea.

Byun, Soo-yong, Evan Schofer, and Kyung-keun Kim. “Revisiting the Role of Cultural Capital in East Asian Educational Systems: The Case of South Korea.” Sociology of Education 85.3 (2012): 219-239. Academic Search Premier. Web. 6 Mar. 2013.

The article explains the structure of the Korean educational system. It also describes the shadow education that many Korean students take part in. Understanding the Korean educational system is important in order to understand why the obsession of education started in the country. It will be helpful in the profile because a general understanding of the educational system in South Korea is needed in order to go further.

Lee, Jiyeon. “South Korean Students’ ‘Year of Hell’ Culminates with Exams Day.” CNN. Cable News Network, 13 Nov. 2011.  Web. 07 Mar. 2013.

The article describes the testing system in South Korea and the stresses that students have because of the obsession of high scores. It is important because testing is a large part of the severe educational system South Korea has and the suffering students go through each year should not be disregarded.

Lee, Soojeong, and Roger C. Shouse. “The Impact Of Prestige Orientation on Shadow Education in South Korea.” Sociology of Education 84.3 (2011): 212-224. Academic Search Premier. Web. 6 Mar. 2013.

The article explains Korean shadow education. Hagwons are explained and the connection between their use and the obsession with having prestige is tied together. It is important because it explains why hagwons were used in the first place. It will be helpful in the profile because it describes the main problem of the educational system that is currently sustained in South Korea.

Ripley, Amanda, and Stephen Kim. “Teacher, Leave Those Kids Alone.” Time 178.22 (2011): 46-49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 6 Mar. 2013.

The article discusses the problems that arise from the educational system that is enforced in South Korea. It also describes a case where shadow education too far- to have the government come in and patrol suspected areas. The severity of the current educational system is described. It is important to understand the situations Korean students are studying under. It will be helpful in the profile because is describes accounts of students that have experienced the traumas of hagwons.

Seth, Michael. “Education Zeal, State Control and Citizenship in South Korea.” Citizenship Studies 16.1 (2012): 13-28. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

The article describes the rise of the sudden obsession of education in South Korea. It also explains the drive that parents have for their children to get high grades. It is important to understand how the educational system in South Korea became so rigid and why students are striving to excel in circumstances that are not favorable.

South Korea’s ‘Education Fever’. 24 Jan. 2007. Online News Clip. PBS. Web.  07 Mar. 2013. <;.

The video describes hagwons and the dedication South Korean students have toward education. It explains the obsession that rose from the strict educational system and tells the story of the life of a student in Korea. It is important for the profile because it describes the story of a student who is exposed to the system and how they live through it.

The Birth of Cool- Boy Bands


A1 The Birth of Cool- Boy Bands REVISED

The Birth of Cool- Boy Bands

Korean pop music or 가요(ga-yo) has become increasingly popular since the genre was introduced in 1992 in South Korea. Korean music has become popular in America because of the prevalent wave of Korean idol groups into the country to promote their music. Listening to Korean music is not a common interest to say the least, but it is still quite popular in America and other parts of the world. There are many different aspects of Korean pop music that attract people to listen to it. For one thing, some people are fond of the Korean language. It is a beautiful language that utilizes a simple writing system. Another likeable characteristic of Korean pop music is that the music is catchy. People become hooked on a song because it is fun and easy to listen to.

The main reason why Korean pop music is so popular is because of the entities that promote Korean pop music: boy and girl groups. Korean pop music has spread to other countries such as China, Japan, and the United States with the help of these idol groups. Korean pop groups are abundant in South Korea; having roughly over 70 groups make their debut in 2012 alone (Wikipedia). More groups are starting to form because Korean pop music is becoming known in other countries. Music entertainment companies are not missing a chance to make a profit by promoting new girl and boy groups while the popularity of Korean music is still high. Even though boy and girl groups are both popular today, boy groups were the first to be formed.

Boy groups or boy bands were not suddenly formed overnight. There were elements that sparked the beginnings of the formations of these groups that gradually transformed overtime. Going back to around the late 19th century, boy bands were derived from barbershop quartets. Barbershop quartets were “usually a group of males [that] sang in four part harmonies” (Wikipedia). The origins of boy bands lie in barbershop quartets in various ways. For one thing, barbershop quartets were the start of musicians coming together to sing a song. Boy bands usually consist of 5 or so members that alternate singing parts of the song. Barbershop quartets signaled the start of that phenomenon. In the 20th century, doo-wop music further expanded on the barbershop quartet style. It wasn’t until the late 20th century that actual boy bands were formed. Deriving their roots from the barbershop quartet style, boy bands in the 1960s started to emerge. The term “boy band” is used in an incorrect way, even though it is still used today. Boy bands are defined as “a vocal group consisting of young male singers…[that] do not play musical instruments, either in recording sessions or on stage…[and] dance as well as sing, usually giving highly choreographed performances” (Wikipedia).

The earliest known boy bands formed in America in the 1960s. The Osmonds, The Jackson 5, and The Monkees were the groups that established a framework for future boy bands (Wikipedia). In Korea, the first evidence of boy bands occurred in 1992 with Seo Taiji & Boys. The main importance of the popularity was the help of the “boys”. The dancers and rappers were exciting and appealing to the audience and it was a sudden change in the music that was listened to during the time (Seoulist).

Boy bands became popular because of a number of reasons. Boy bands usually have a personality concept. Each member of the boy band has a specific personality or image such as the “bad boy, the cute one, the baby”, etc (Wikipedia). This sparked the mainly female audience’s attention. Since boy bands usually consisted of many members, the audience would be likely to have at least one member that they liked, if not all. Pop groups promote a song or an album over the course of several weeks. Most groups release a music video for one song on the album to entice consumers into buying the full album (or mini album, depending on what is released). The different charms of each of the members draw fans into supporting the group which in turn increases their popularity.

American boy groups have died down, but Korean boy groups are numerous and popular in South Korea as well as many other parts of the world, even including America. Many of the fans of these boy groups were fans of American boy groups such as N’SYNC and The Backstreet Boys. American boy groups have broken up and lost popularity in the States. N’SYNC, for example, disbanded and the members have been involved in other forms of entertainment. Justin Timberlake who was a popular of N’SYNC now promotes music that is far from the image he once held in the early 90s. America is fast paced and is always looking for fresh and new styles. It was inevitable that boy bands would lose their popularity because America is not a country that lingers on one thing for too long.

Korean boy groups have remained popular because the genre of music, Korean pop, is the most popular in South Korea. As previously stated, in America, music is always changing. There is always something coming out in America that replaces the old. South Korea embraced the Korean pop music that spread and made it even more popular through entertainment companies. Music industry entertainment companies that are well known in South Korea include SM Entertainment, JYP Entertainment, and YG Entertainment. The companies scout people to become trainees to be placed into a group after years of training in the music industry. The group debuts after being well trained in singing and dancing. The companies regulate everything from the music the groups perform, the choreography, and the image of the members (Washington Post). Because boy groups are styled by entertainment companies, everything seems perfect and without flaws. Fans of boy groups model after the members and try to obtain the same look that the group promotes. Trendy fashion and hair styles are mimicked by fans that have come to love the groups that appear to be so perfect in everything they do.

Despite the good looks of pop groups, the Korean idol group industry is not a pretty one to say the least. Groups are managed by the entertainment companies with every detail being planned out. Contracts bind the members to the company for years and if they are broken they are subject to being fined. SM Entertainment, one well known music entertainment company in Korea, has trainees with “contracts that range from 5 to 13 years” (Asia-Gazette). One of the members of the popular boy group Super Junior even admitted that he would have liked to switch agencies but the “compensation he would have to pay would be too much to handle” (Asia-Gazette). Members of a group are essentially puppets that the entertainment companies have complete control over. What the members eat, how long they exercise for, what languages they learn, when they sleep, what they where is all decided for them and they have no say whatsoever in what they want to do. There is a harsh reality to the industry. The members may all seem perfect on stage and on variety shows but it is all smoke and mirrors. The members do not have their own identities. They are what the companies want them to be.

With every detail being formulated, Korean boy bands have become popular even today because of the catchy music and almost too perfect members. Despite what goes behind the scenes of the Korean music industry, Korean idols have become popular because of their perfected images and synchronized dances. Boy bands are only one method in spreading Korean pop music throughout the world…girl groups are a completely different story!

Works Cited

Chu, Emilie. “Korean Boy Bands 101: Old School Edition.” Seoulist. N.p., 5 Feb. 2012. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <;.

Daniele. “K-Pop’s Slave Contracts – a Glance at South Korea’s Entertainment Industry.” The East Asia Gazette. N.p., 21 May 2012. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. <;.

Fisher, Max. “Visual Music: How ‘Gangnam Style’ Exploited K-pop’s Secret Strength and Overcame Its Biggest Weakness.” Washington Post. N.p., 18 Oct. 2012. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <;.

“K-pop.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Feb. 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <;.

“List of South Korean Idol Groups (2010s).” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Feb. 2013. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. <;.

“Seo Taiji and Boys.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 Sept. 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <;.

Noitisopmoc Hsilgne

(English Composition)